In the case of classic board games such as Chess, Go, Backgammon and Checkers, there is an incredibly large number of potential moves in the game. On a standard competition size Go Board, for example, there are potentially 1
Among such brain and classic games, only one has been completely solved: Checkers. In 2007, computer engineer Jonathan Schaeffer completed an 18-year-old effort to solve every possible move in the game with checkers-500 billion or 5 * 10 ^ 20 possible possible legal positions. Unlike IBM's Deep Blue computer system that uses huge amounts of horsepower to analyze future movements of the fly (as the chess board solution is still out of reach), Shaeffer's Chinook system developed for years of slow crushing through positions and potential playoffs to It had learned almost every possible move in the game.
Originally, the goal had simply been to design a computer that was very good on checkers. For that purpose, Chinook did pretty well. In the 1990s it was consistent to beat top players and eventually met it against Marion Tinsley (not just the world champion at that time but an absolutely legendary player who dominated the game with checkers for forty straight years). Chinook did pretty well against Tinsley, but their series of seven games all ended in draws. Soon after, Tinsely became ill and passed and left a huge void in the world of controls and in Schaeffer's plans to design a chess-playing computer that could beat the world's biggest player.
Before no suitable mega master to defeat, Schaeffer did the only thing left to do: solve the game and effectively beat the checkers themselves. In 2017, he explained in an interview with the Atlantic:
From the end of the Tinsley story in & nbsp; 94 – & nbsp; 95 until 2007, I worked obsessively to build a perfect checker program. The reason was simple: I wanted to get rid of Marion Tinsley's ghost. People told me, "You could never have beaten Tinsley because he was perfect." Well, we should have beaten Tinsley because he was just almost perfect. But my computer program is perfect.
Schaeffer's program is actually perfect. When you play against yourself, both sides play perfectly and each match ends in a draw.